The material of our stretch chambers made by Strex is a thin silicone elastomer whose main part is made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface has strong hydrophobic and weak cell adhesiveness. In cell culture, the chambers must be first coated with an extracellular matrix (e.g. fibronectin, collagen, laminin, gelatin) to strengthen the cell adhesiveness of culture surface (see coating protocols). PDMS chambers bounce back from stretching and compression with their original properties intact. Thus, the chambers demonstrate good reproducibility in applications requiring continuous mechanical stretching over prolonged periods. An optically transparent, ultra-thin (100 – 200 μm) membrane at the well bottom not only makes stretch chambers compatible with optical microscopy techniques, but with fluorescence detection and microscopy as well.